Isolation and Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents Produced by Soil Bacillus SP. and Study Some of their Immunological Parameters
A total of 120 soil samples were gathered from various locations in Iraq's Babylon province. Thirty Bacillus isolates were collected, purified, and identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Antimicrobial activity was assessed on all isolates against Gram-positive and negative pathogenic bacteria through primary screening. The results obtained that 10 isolated have such potential. Secondary metabolic products were extracted from extracellular and tested for their activity against pathogenic bacteria using the well diffusion method in secondary screening. Three isolates (MA3, HI-11 & AM-15) had diameters more than 1 mm were considered to be potential isolates and were subjected for immune study. Antigens derived from secondary metabolic products (antibacterial agents) were generated and tested in local rabbits using the DTH-skin test and differential white blood cells. Six animals of both sexes were randomly assigned to one of two antigen groups in the first group (3 rabbits). After 14 days, a booster dose in the same amount was administered. The second group, consisting of three animals, was used as a control group. No significant differences were found in the DTH-skin test (P< 0.05) were recorded between the concentrations 15mg/ml and 7.5mg/ml after 24, 48, and 72 hrs., but there was a significant differences P<0.05) between these concentrations and 7.5 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml and control site. There was no significant difference between all types of cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils) of immunized and control groups.
Ahmed, A. A. Production of antimicrobial agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes. Saudi J. Bio. Sci. 2007;14: 7-16.
Al-Sultany, S.J. and jassim Y.A. Physiological and Immunological Effect of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli was Extracted by Hot Phenol-Water in Rabbits. RJPBCS. 2016; 7(3): 1530.
Al-Bdairi A. A.H., Al-Kadhim H. K. H., Al-Shaikh S. F., Al-Hindy H. A.-A. M.”ABO Blood grouping and Rhesus factor: Association with ovarian reserve and the outcomes after in-vitro fertilization” History of Medicine, (2022): 8 (1), 18 –28
Alkhafaje W. K., Kshain W. H., Fadhil A., Al-Mualm M., Fadhil M. “Listeria Infection as the Possible Cause of The Spontaneous Abortion in Fertile Age of Women” History of Medicine, (2022), 8 (1), 1-16
Al-Thubiani, A., Maher, Y. A., Fathi, A., Abourehab, M., Alarjah, M., Khan, M., et al. (2018). Identification and characterization of a novel antimicrobial peptide compound produced by Bacillus megaterium strain isolated from oral microflora. Saudi. Pharm. J. 26, 1089–1097. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.05.019
Atta, H.M. Production, Purification, Physico - Chem- ical Characteristics and Biological Activities of Antifungal AntibioticProduced by Streptomycesantibioticus, AZZ710. American- Eurasian J. of Sci. Res.2010; 5: 39-49.
Coles, E.H. Veterinary clinical pathology .Fourth Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia,1986.
Don, J.B., Noel R.K., and James T.S. 2005. Berge's manual of systematic
Elmerich, C., and Aubert, J. P. Synthesis of glutamate by a glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate amidotransferase (NADP oxidoreductase) in Bacillus megaterium. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1971; 42, 371–376. doi: 10.1016/0006-291x(71) 90380-9
Eppinger, M., Bunk, B., Johns, M. A., Edirisinghe, J. N., Kutumbaka, K. K., and Koenig, S. S. Genome sequences of the biotechnologically important Bacillus megaterium strains QM B1551 and DSM319. J. Bacteriol. 2011; 193, 4199– 4213. doi: 10.1128/JB.00449-11
Hitchins, A. D., Kahn, A. J., and Slepecky, R. A. Interference contrast and phase contrast microscopy of sporulation and germination of Bacillus megaterium. J. Bacteriol. 1968; 96, 1811–1817. doi: 10.1128/JB.96.5.1811-1817.1968
Hudson, L. and Hay, F.C. Practical immunology .Third Edition. Black well scientific pub .Oxford-London, 1980.
Immanual G., Dhanusa, R., Prema P., Palavesam A.,. Effect of different growth parameters on endoglucanase enzyme activity by bacteria isolated from coir retting efflu- ents of estuarine environment. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006;3(1): 25–34.
Jassim Y.A. and Al-Amery S.M. Purification and characterization of protease and lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from some wound and burn infection. Drug Invention Today 2019; 11(10).
Juyapal, V. Fundamentals of medical immunology. Jaypee Brothers Medical publishers (p) LTD. New Delhi. 2007.
Konna, S., Ohtsuka, A., Sakamoto,T., Nakaoka, Y., Fukud, S., Kiku, Y., Koiwa, M, Takah ashi, J., Tamiyo M.A.H., Yokomizo, Y., Okada, H. and Yoshino, Y. Inflammatory cytokine and antigen-responsive mononuclear cell in the peripheral blood of cattle infected with salmonella takorodi.J.Vet.Med.Sci. 2001; 63:860-865.
Mannaa, M., and Kim, K. D. Biocontrol activity of volatile-producing Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas protegens against Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. predominant in stored rice grains: study II. Mycobiology, 2018; 46, 52–63. doi: 10.1080/12298093.2018.1454015
Narjes, D. Isolation and characterization of new strains of novel plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. ) rhizospherical soil: A novel IAA producing bacteria. Kuwait journal of science. 2021; 42(2).
Pridham, T. G. andTresner, R. D. Family VU.Strepto- mycetaceaeWaksman and Henrici 1943, 339.fu: RE Buchan- an and NE Gibson (eds). Bergey’s Manual od Determinative Bacteriology. 8 thed 1975; 747-845.
Tizard, I.R. Vaccincs and their production. Veterinary immunology an introduction, Eighth Edition. Saunder Elsevier. 2009; 255-380.