Reducing Tick Infestations in Cattle with Integrated Pest Management
Cattle infestations are the presence of external parasites that may cause a variety of health problems in the herd. Common examples of such parasites are ticks, lice, mites, and flies. Parasites like this are not only annoying, but they may also spread illness and lead to health problems for humans. The management and prevention of parasite infestations in cattle requires effective parasite control techniques, such as good cleanliness, frequent monitoring, and the administration of suitable therapies. Forty Holstein cows in the middle of their lactation were split into eight groups and given either a Bm 86 vaccine TickGARDPLUS to prevent tick infection from Boophilus microplus, or they were kept on a feedpad until 9:00 a.m, following which they were milked. When measured in the lab, tick reproductive efficiency decreased by 72 percent after vaccination, while tick counts in the field decreased by 56 percent for one generation. Vaccinated cattle had a lower somatic cell count (SCC) in their milk and gained 18.6 kg more weight in their first 27 weeks after vaccination than control calves. There were no other noteworthy variations in output metrics. Compared to cows that were returned to their paddocks after the morning milking, people who remained on the feedpad had 26% more ticks.
Filgueiras, M. D. G., Matos, R. S., Barreto, L. P., Mascarin, G. M., Rizzo, P. V., Freitas, F. M. C., & Fernandes, É. K. K. (2023). From the laboratory to the field: efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes to control the cattle tick. Pest Management Science, 79(1), 216-225.
Oundo, J. W. A. A., Masiga, D., Okal, M. N. A., Bron, G. M., Akutse, K. S., Subramanian, S., & Kalayou, S. (2022). Evaluating the efficacy of Mazao Tickoff (Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE 7) in controlling natural tick infestations on cattle in coastal Kenya: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Plos one, 17(8), e0272865.
Nwanade, C. F., Wang, M., Li, S., Yu, Z., & Liu, J. (2022). The current strategies and underlying mechanisms in the control of the vector tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis: Implications for future integrated management. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 101905.
Chepkwony, R., Van Bommel, S., & Van Langevelde, F. (2021). Interactive effects of biological, human and environmental factors on tick loads in Boran cattle in tropical drylands. Parasites & Vectors, 14, 1-8.
Theron, E. M. C., & Magano, S. R. (2022). A reflection on tick control and the potential role of botanical products in integrated management practices. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 39(3), 213-225.
De León, A. A. P., Mitchell III, R. D., & Watson, D. W. (2020). Ectoparasites of cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 36(1), 173-185.
Githaka, N. W., Kanduma, E. G., Wieland, B., Darghouth, M. A., & Bishop, R. P. (2022). Acaricide resistance in livestock ticks infesting cattle in Africa: Current status and potential mitigation strategies. Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases, 100090.
Kasaija, P. D., Contreras, M., Kirunda, H., Nanteza, A., Kabi, F., Mugerwa, S., & de la Fuente, J. (2022). Inspiring Anti-Tick Vaccine Research, Development, and Deployment in Tropical Africa for the Control of Cattle Ticks: Review and Insights. Vaccines, 11(1), 99.
Mukolwe, D. L., Byaruhanga, C., & Obonyo, F. O. (2021). Epidemiology and Economic Importance of Tick-Borne Diseases of Cattle in Africa. In Combating and Controlling Nagana and Tick-Borne Diseases in Livestock (pp. 144-165). IGI Global.
Parthasarathi, B., Kumar, B., & Ghosh, S. (2021). Current status and prospects of multi-antigen tick vaccine. Journal of Vector-Borne Diseases, 58(3), 183-183.
Agwunobi, D. O., Yu, Z., & Liu, J. (2021). A retrospective review on ixodid ticks resistance against synthetic acaricides: implications and perspectives for future resistance prevention and mitigation. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 173, 104776.
Hüe, T., Fontfreyde, C., Wang, H. H., Grant, W. E., Teel, P. D., & de León, A. A. P. (2021). Optimizing long-acting acaricide use for integrated tick management of Rhipicephalus australis-infesting cattle in New Caledonia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 53, 1-9.
Rochon, K., Hogsette, J. A., Kaufman, P. E., Olafson, P. U., Swiger, S. L., & Taylor, D. B. (2021). Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae)—biology, management, and research needs. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 12(1), 38.
Apsunde, T. C. (2022). Studies on different types of insect pests at Dindori region in Nashik. MVP's KSKW Arts, Science & Commerce College, Cidco, Nashik.
Mazuz, M. L., Laughery, J. M., Lebovitz, B., Yasur-Landau, D., Rot, A., Bastos, R. G., ... & Suarez, C. E. (2021). Experimental infection of calves with transfected attenuated babesia bovis expressing the rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen and egfp marker: Preliminary studies towards a dual anti-Tick/Babesia vaccine. Pathogens, 10(2), 135.
Araújo, S. B. D., Anjos, K. A. D., Duarte, F. C., Fiorini, L. C., Godoi, F. E. D. M., Sampaio, P. H. S., & Mendes, M. C. (2019). Integrated tick control on a farm with the presence of capybaras in a Brazilian spotted fever endemic region. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 28, 671-676.
Quadros, D. G., Johnson, T. L., Whitney, T. R., Oliver, J. D., & Oliva Chávez, A. S. (2020). Plant-derived natural compounds for tick pest control in livestock and wildlife: Pragmatism or utopia? Insects, 11(8), 490.
Jain, P., Satapathy, T., & Pandey, R. K. (2020). A mini-review of methods to control ticks population infesting cattle in Chhattisgarh with special emphasis on herbal acaricides.
Hüe, T., Wang, H. H., Grant, W. E., Teel, P. D., & Pérez de León, A. A. (2022). Implementation Research for Integrated Tick Control of Rhipicephalus australis (Acari: Ixodidae) Through the Pasture and Cattle Management Method in New Caledonia. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 13(1), 26.
Rosario, C. M. A., Miller, R. J., Klafke, G. M., Coates, C., Grant, W. E., Samenuk, G., ... & Teel, P. D. (2022). Interaction between the anti-tick vaccine and a macrocyclic lactone improves acaricidal efficacy against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini)(Acari: Ixodidae) in experimentally infested cattle. Vaccine, 40(47), 6795-6801.
Alonso-Díaz, M. A., & Fernández-Salas, A. (2021). Entomopathogenic fungi for tick control in cattle livestock from Mexico. Frontiers in Fungal Biology, 2, 657694.
Esteve-Gasent, M. D., Rodríguez-Vivas, R. I., Medina, R. F., Ellis, D., Schwartz, A., Cortés Garcia, B., & Pérez de León, A. A. (2020). Research on integrated management for cattle fever ticks and bovine babesiosis in the United States and Mexico: current status and opportunities for binational coordination. Pathogens, 9(11), 871.
Jerjero, T. (2022). In-vivo acaricidal efficacy of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract against tick infestation in cattle.
Burrow, H. M., Mans, B. J., Cardoso, F. F., Birkett, M. A., Kotze, A. C., Hayes, B. J., & Djikeng, A. (2019). Towards a new phenotype for tick resistance in beef and dairy cattle: A review. Animal Production Science, 59(8), 1401-1427.
Crain, P. R., & Onstad, D. W. (2019). Perseverance pays off: finishing the integrated pest management marathon with economics. In The economics of integrated pest management of insects (pp. 179-186). Wallingford UK: CABI.
Estrada-Peña, A., Mallón, A. R., Bermúdez, S., de la Fuente, J., Domingos, A., García, M. P. E., & Nava, S. (2022). One Health Approach to Identify Research Needs on Rhipicephalus microplus Ticks in the Americas. Pathogens 2022, 11, 1180.
Contreras, M., Villar, M., & De la Fuente, J. (2019). A vaccinomics approach for the identification of tick protective antigens for the control of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus infestations in companion animals. Frontiers in physiology, 10, 977.