Evaluating the Protective Potential of Nano L-Carnitine on the Gonadal Pathway in Lead Acetate-Exposed Male Rats

  • Krishana Kumar Sharma Professor, College of Pharmacy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Manashree Avinash Mane Assistant Professor, Department of Forensic Science, School of Sciences, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Karnataka, India
  • Jayabhaye Mahesh Shrirnag Professor, Department of Ayurveda, Sanskriti University, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India
Keywords: lead acetate, sperm characteristics, chitosan, L-carnitine, nanoparticles, and reproductive hormones


The goal of the research was to find out whether L-Carnitine (LC) and Nano L-Carnitine (NLC) could protect against the testicular toxicity brought on by lead acetate (PbAc). By encasing LC in Chitosan (CS) - tripolyphosphate (TPP) - based NPs, they created LC nanoparticles (NPs). Each of the experiment has divided into six Teams; there are ten adult male Wistar albino rats. The first Team functioned as the controlling Team and received distilled water that was provided orally. The second Team was given 30 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) orally once daily for 30 days. In the third Team, oral doses of LC (100 mg/kg body mass/day for two months) and LA (30 mg/kg body mass for 30 days) were given. The fourth Team was given oral doses of LA (for 30 days at 30 mg/kg body mass) and NLC (for 2 months at 100 mg/kg body mass/day). LC was administered orally to the fifth Team twice daily for 2 months an amount of 100 mg/kg body mass. The sixth Team ingested 100 mg/kg of LC -NPs twice each day for two months. The finding indicated that the levels of testosterone hormones were noticeably greater in the LA+ NLC Team compared to the LA Team. The LA+ NLC Team also showed lower follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in comparison to the LA Team. Additionally, when compared to Team two (LA), Team three (LA+ LC) and four (LA+ NLC) both significantly increased the percentage of Sperm motility and count. The Sperm motility and count gains in Team four were more pronounced. Additionally, compared to Team two (lead acetate), there was a significantly lower incidence of stale sperm and aberrant morphology in Teams 3 and 4. The testes' histopathology revealed significant alterations, including the germinal epithelium's severe degeneration and sloughing, the basement membrane's disorganization, the seminiferous tubule lumens were empty of spermatids, and there was vacuolization with few spermatogonia in the lumens, along with atrophy and irregularity. However, in the treated Team, these harmful alterations decreased or vanished. Overall, the research showed that giving male rats LC and NLC prevented the harmful effects of LA on their testicles. The treated Team demonstrated improvements in testicular histopathological damage, sperm count, motility, and morphology, as well as testosterone hormone levels.


Ameeduzzafar, Ali, J., Fazil, M., Qumbar, M., Khan, N. and Ali, A., 2016. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery. Drug delivery, 23(3), pp.700-716.

Wu, L., Zhou, W., Lin, L., Chen, A., Feng, J., Qu, X., Zhang, H. and Yue, J., 2022. Delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides in nanoscale. Bioactive materials, 7, pp.292-323.

Zaboon, M.H., Saleh, A.A. and Al-Lami, H.S., 2021. Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity investigation of chitosan-amino acid derivatives nanoparticles in human breast cancer cell lines. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society, 65(2), pp.178-188.

Mardanshahi, T., Rezaei, N., Zare, Z., Shafaroudi, M.M. and Mohammadi, H., 2019. Effects of L-Carnitine on sperm parameters disorders, apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and testis histopathology in diabetic Rats. International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine, 17(5), p.325.

Bassi, E., Facoetti, R., Ferloni, M., Pastorino, A., Bianchi, A., Fedrizzi, G., Bertoletti, I. and Andreotti, A., 2021. Lead contamination in tissues of large avian scavengers in south-central Europe. Science of The Total Environment, 778, p.146130.

Sarawi, W.S., Alhusaini, A.M., Fadda, L.M., Alomar, H.A., Albaker, A.B., Alghibiwi, H.K., Aljrboa, A.S., Alotaibi, A.M., Hasan, I.H. and Mahmoud, A.M., 2022. Nano-curcumin prevents copper reproductive toxicity by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation and improving Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. Toxins, 10(7), p.356.

NASEER, Z., RAZA, S., AHMAD, E. and AKSOY, M., 2022. USE OF ANTIOXIDANTS TO IMPROVE THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN MODEL LABORATORY ANIMALS. The Role of Exogenous Antioxidants in Enhancing Reproductive Function and Performance, p.1.

Mobarak, H., Heidarpour, M., Rahbarghazi, R., Nouri, M. and Mahdipour, M., 2021. Amniotic fluid-derived exosomes improved spermatogenesis in a rat model of azoospermia. Life Sciences, 274, p.119336.

Mansour, D.F., Saleh, D.O., Ahmed-Farid, O.A., Rady, M., Bakeer, R.M. and Hashad, I.M., 2021. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) mitigates methotrexate-induced testicular insult in rats: Targeting oxidative stress, energy deficit, and spermatogenesis. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 143, p.112201.

Zhao, X., Wang, Q., Li, X., Xu, H., Ren, C., Yang, Y., Xu, S., Wei, G., Duan, Y., Tan, Z. and Fang, Y., 2023. Norgestrel causes digestive gland injury in the clam Mactra dendriform's: An integrated histological, transcriptomics, and metabolomics study. Science of The Total Environment, 871, p.162110.

Ibrahim, I.A., Shalaby, A.A., Abd Elaziz, R.T. and Bahr, H.I., 2021. Chlorella vulgaris or Spirulina platensis mitigate lead acetate-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis with regard to androgen receptor expression in rats. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, pp.39126-39138.

Thoreux-Manlay, A., Le Goascogne, C., Segretain, D., J├ęgou, B. and Pinon-Lataillade, G., 1995. Lead affects steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells in vivo and in vitro. Toxicology, 103(1), pp.53-62.

Wahab, O.A., Princely, A.C., Oluwadamilare, A.A., Oore-oluwapo, D.O., Blessing, A.O. and Alfred, E.F., 2019. Clomiphene citrate ameliorated lead acetate-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. JBRA assisted reproduction, 23(4), p.336.

Sainath, S.B., Meena, R., Supriya, C.H., Reddy, K.P. and Reddy, P.S., 2011. Protective role of Centella asiatica on lead-induced oxidative stress and suppressed reproductive health in male rats. environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 32(2), pp.146-154.

Salama, S.A., Arab, H.H., Omar, H.A., Gad, H.S., Abd-Allah, G.M. and Maghrabi, I.A., 2018. L-carnitine mitigates UVA-induced skin tissue injury in rats through the downregulation of oxidative stress, p38/c-Fos signaling, and proinflammatory cytokines. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 285, pp.40-47.

How to Cite
Krishana Kumar Sharma, Manashree Avinash Mane, & Jayabhaye Mahesh Shrirnag. (2023). Evaluating the Protective Potential of Nano L-Carnitine on the Gonadal Pathway in Lead Acetate-Exposed Male Rats. Revista Electronica De Veterinaria, 24(2), 81 - 95. Retrieved from https://veterinaria.org/index.php/REDVET/article/view/329