Measuring the Effects of Rearing Systems on Gaoyou Duck Performance, Carcass Quality, and Meat Characteristics

  • Suraj Chetri Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, Assam down Town University, Guwahati, Assam, India
  • A. K. Singh Associate Professor, School of Agricultural Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Apurva Kumar Joshi R Assistant Professor, Department of Bio Chemistry, School of Sciences, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Karnataka, India
Keywords: Serum biochemical parameters, poultry production, rearing system, growth performance, and carcass yield, China, Gaoyou duck, meat quality


The raising system is a significant non-genetic component that has a considerable impact on chicken output. In this study, comparing “Floor Rearing Systems (FRS), Net Rearing Systems (NRS), and Cage Rearing Systems (CRS)," researchers looked at growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, Gaoyou ducks' meat quality and carcass characteristics.

Methods: The FRS, net raising organizations, and then CRS groups were each comprised of 450 healthy male Gaoyou ducks that were 22 days old and had a similar average body weight. Age range for the trial was 22 to 84 days.

Results: Daily growth, average feed consumption, and feed-to-gain ratio were all greater for CRS ducks than for control ducks (P <0.03). FRS ducks' decreased drip loss and belly fat content also increased breast and gizzard yields and shear force (P 0.05). FRS ducks also had greater amounts of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and considerably lower levels of glucose, total protein, and triglycerides (P 0.05).

Conclusion: Gaoyou ducks' growth performance benefited with CRS, but the meat quality, carcass features, and several serum biochemical indicators benefited from FRS. The outcomes showed that both the CRS and FRS have advantages. As a result, the production goal and market demand should be considered while choosing an appropriate raising method.


United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA (2008): Pesticide homepage,

Kamel, F. and Hoppin, JA. (2004): Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 112(9):950-958.

Mnif, W.; Hassine, AI.;Bouaziz, A.; Bartegi, A.; Thomas, O. and Roig, B. (2011): Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(6):2265-2303.

WHO/UNEP. (1990).Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. Geneva, p. 128.

Hayes, W.J. and E.R. Laws, (1991). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. 1st Edn., Academic Press, San Diego, CA., ISBN-10: 0123341604, pp: 1523.

Meister, RT. (1992): Farm chemicals handbook. Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Company. Willoghby, OH.

IPCS/WHO, (1996). Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. 1st Edn., Geneva, Switzerland.

Rawlings, N.C., Cook, S.J. and Waldbillig, D. (1998). ‘‘Effect of the Pesticides CarbofuranChlorpyrifos, Trimetion, Lindane, Triallates, Trifluralin, 2, 4-D and Entachlorophenol on the Metabolic Endocrine and Reproductive Endocrine System in Ewes.” J. of Toxicol. and Environ. Hlth., 54, No. 10 21- 36.

Abdallah, F.B., A.B. Slima, I. Dammak, L. Keskes- Ammar and Z. Mallek. (2010). Comparative effects of Trimetion and deltamethrin on reproductive system in mice.Andrologia, 42: 182-186. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2009.00976.x.

Farag, A.T., T.A.Z. Karkour and A.E. Okazy, (2006). Developmental toxicity of orally administered technical Trimetion in rats. Birth Defects Res., 77: 40-46. PMID: 16496292.

Kaur, S. and C.K. Dhanju, (2005). Biochemical effects of some organophosphorus pesticides on the ovaries of albino rats. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 49: 148- 152. PMID: 16170982.

Farag, A.T., A.F. El-Aswad and N.A. Shaaban, (2007). Assessment of reproductive toxicity of orally administered technical Trimetion in male mice. Reprod. Toxicol., 23: 232-238. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox..12.003.

Sayim, F., (2007). Histopathologic effects of Trimetionon testis in rats. Bull. Environ. Contam.Toxicol., 78: 479-484. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-007-9196-5.

Ngoula, F., P. Watcho, S. Bouseko, A. Kenfack and J. Tchoumboue (2007). Effects of propoxur on the reproductive system of male rats. Afr. J. Reproduct. Health, 11: 125-132. DOI: 10.2307/30032495

Ngoula, F., P. Watcho, M.C Dongmo, A. Kenfack and P. Kamtchouinget al., (2007). Effects of pirimiphosmethyl on the fertility of adult male rats. Afr. Health Sci., 7: 3-9. PMID: 17604518

American Cyanamid Company. (1984). MRID No. 00149126.Available from EPA. Write to FOI, EPA, Washington, DC 20460.

Gharban, H.A., Al-Shaeli, S.J., and Hussen, T.J. (2023). Molecular genotyping, histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of bovine papillomatosis. Open Veterinary Journal, 13(1), 26-41.

Ferah, S. (2007). Histopathological Effects of Trimetion on Testes of Rats. Volume 78, Issue 6, pp 479–484.

Chakroun, H., N. Hfaiedh, F. Makni-Ayadi, F Guermazi and A. Kammounat al., (2002). Nickel etfertilité chez le rat. Sexologies, 12: 59-65.

Joshi, S.C. and B. Bansal, (2012).Reproductive toxicity of monocrotophos in male rats. Int. J. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol., 2: 6-11.

Sujatha, R., K.C. Chitra, C. Latchoumycandane and P.P Mathur, (2001). Effect of lindane on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats. Asian J. Androl., 3: 135-138. PMID: 11404799.

Sanchez-Pena, L.C., B.E. Reyes, L. Lopez-Carrillo, R. Recio and J. Moran-Martinez et al., (2004).Organophosphorous pesticides exposure alters sperm chromatin structure in Mexican agricultural workers. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol., 196: 108- 113. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap..11.023.

Afifi, N. A., Ramadan, A., Abd-El-Aziz, M. I., and Saki, E. E. (1991).Influence of Trimetion on testicular and epididymal organs, testosterone plasma level and their tissue residues in rats.Dtsch. Tierarztl.Wochenschr. 98, 419–423.

Choudhary, N., Goyal, R., and Joshi, S. C. (2008). Effect of malathion on reproductive system of male rats. J. Environ. Biol. 29, 259–262.

Huang, L. G., Lin, P., Gong, C. Y., Zhang, J., Zhou, Q., Gong, X. D., and Zeng, L. (2006). Pathological changes in the testes of the rats with hypospadia induced by dichlorvos. Zhonghua Nan KeXue 12, 693–695.

Joshi, S. C., Mathur, R., and Gulati, N. (2007). Testicular toxicity of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate pesticide) in albino rat.Toxicol. Ind. Health 23, 439–444.

Gray, L. E., Jr, Wolf, C., Lambright, C., Mann, P., Price, M., Cooper, R. L., and Ostby, J. (1999). Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p, p’-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethanesulfonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in male rats. Toxicol. Ind. Health 15, 94–118.

Turner, K. J., Barlow, N. J., Struve, M. F., Wallace, D. G., Gaido, K. W., Dorman, D. C., and Foster, P. M. D. (2002). Effects of in utero exposure to the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the Crl:CD(SD)BR rat. Toxicol. Sci. 68, 174–183.

Farag, A. T., El-Aswad, A. F., and Shaaban, N. A. (2007).Assessment of reproductive toxicity of orally administered Trimetion in male mice.Reprod. Toxicol. 23, 232–238.

Ben Rhouma, K., Tebourbi, O., Krichah, R., and Sakly, M. (2001).Reproductive toxicity of DDT in adult male rats. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 20, 393–397.

Dalsenter, P. R., Faqi, A. S., and Chahoud, I. (1997).Serum testosterone and sexual behavior in rats after prenatal exposure to lindane. Bull. Environ. Contam.Toxicol. 59, 360–366.

Hallegue, D., Ben Rhouma, K., Tebourbi, O., and Sakly, M. (2003).Impairment of testicular endocrine functions after dieldrin exposure in adult rats. Pol. J. Environ. Studies 12, 557–561.

How to Cite
Suraj Chetri, A. K. Singh, & Apurva Kumar Joshi R. (2023). Measuring the Effects of Rearing Systems on Gaoyou Duck Performance, Carcass Quality, and Meat Characteristics. Revista Electronica De Veterinaria, 24(2), 344 - 354. Retrieved from