Evaluating the Efficacy of Ultrasonographic and Macroscopic Approaches for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Golden Hamsters

  • Anupama Shamsunder Madhekar Professor, Department of Ayurveda, Sanskriti University, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Antara Bhowmik Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, Assam down town University, Guwahati, Assam, India
  • Roopashree Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Karnataka, India
Keywords: Hamster, pregnancy, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Electrocardiogram Macroscopic


The hamster is a popular experimental model for studying the reproductive system. However, it has always been challenging to diagnose Pregnancy and aging. In certain tiny laboratory animals, such as rabbits, rats, along with mice, ultrasonography has been used to diagnose pregnancy. The trans-abdominal ultrasound used to diagnose pregnancies and determine fetal ages in golden hamsters. Ten mature female golden hamsters were chosen and housed in a 14-hour light/10-hour dark cycle. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were used to synchronize the estrous cycle. After seven days after mating, a medical ultrasound machine equipped to use a linear 8.5 MHZ probe was used to check the hamsters every day for signs of age and pregnancy. The pregnant hamsters was put to death each day of the experiment and then dissected to obtain macroscopic fetal measures with a digital caliper. The Objective of the study was to evaluating the efficacy of ultrasonographic and macroscopic approaches for pregnancy diagnosis in golden hamsters.


Hussein, A. M., Elbarmelgy, R. A., Elbarmelgy, R. M., Thabet, M. M., & Jauniaux, E. (2022). Prospective evaluation of the impact of post‐Cesarean section uterine scarring in the perinatal diagnosis of placenta accrete spectrum disorder. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 59(4), 474-482.

Wu, X., An, G., Xie, X., Su, L., Cai, M., Chen, X., ... & Xu, L. (2020). Chromosomal microarray analysis for pregnancies with or without ultrasound abnormalities in women of advanced maternal age. Journal of clinical laboratory analysis, 34(4), e23117.

Keshavarz, M. A., Mogheiseh, A., Ahrari-Khafi, M. S., & Mahboobi, R. (2022). Ultrasonographic and macroscopic study of pregnancy in the golden hamster. Laboratory Animal Research, 38(1), 2.

Xu, F., Cai, H., Li, H., & Wang, D. (2022). Benzo (a) pyrene-induced adverse pregnancy outcomes by affecting the expression of IL-18 and IL-1RN in the placenta. Heliyon, 8(11), e11767. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e11767

Goswami, R., Pavon, C. G., Miller, I. G., Berendam, S. J., Williams, C. A., Rosenthal, D., ... & Fouda, G. G. (2022). Prenatal Immunization to Prevent Viral Disease Outcomes During pregnancy and Early Life. Frontiers in Virology, 2, 849995.

Quarato, C. M. I., Lacedonia, D., Salvemini, M., Tuccari, G., Mastrodonato, G., Villani, R., ... & Sperandeo, M. (2023). A Review on Biological Effects of Ultrasounds: Key Messages for Clinicians. Diagnostics, 13(5), 855.

Sekhar, R. (2021). Yearbook of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery-3. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.

Christiansen, D. (2021). Examination for pregnancy: Rectal Palpation. Bovine Reproduction, 471-478.

Pirtle, T. (2021). Mothers and forgotten fathers: prenatal effects and paternal influences on mammalian sex ratios (Doctoral dissertation, University Of Tasmania).

Racey, P. A. (1969). Diagnosis of pregnancy and experimental extension of gestation in the pipistrelle bat, Pipistrellus pipistrellus. Reproduction, 19(3), 465-474.

García-Villarino, M., Signes-Pastor, A. J., Riaño-Galán, I., Rodríguez-Dehli, A. C., Vizcaíno, E., Grimalt, J. O., ... & Tardón, A. (2022). Serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants mixture during pregnancy and anogenital distance in 8-year-old children from the INMA-Asturias cohort. Environmental Research, 213, 113607.

Foratori-Junior, G. A., Jesuino, B. G., Caracho, R. A., Orenha, E. S., Groppo, F. C., & SALES-PERES, S. H. D. C. (2020). Association between excessive maternal weight, periodontitis during the third trimester of pregnancy, and infant's health at birth. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 28.

Xia, W., Zhang, J., Zhang, D., Zhu, Q., Zhang, H., Huang, Z., ... & Duan, H. (2019). Left–right asymmetry of tubal pregnancy: a 12-year retrospective hospital-based study. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, 26(4), 671-678. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmig.2018.07.010

Smith, M. R., Read, K. C., Stegman, M. L., Kroll, N. J., & Van Every, M. J. (2019). Evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria by renal ultrasound to detect upper tract malignancy: a 20-year experience in a community hospital. Urology, 133, 34-39.

Odhiambo, J. F., Poole, D. H., Hughes, L., Dejarnette, J. M., Inskeep, E. K., & Dailey, R. A. (2009). pregnancy outcome in dairy and beef cattle after artificial insemination and treatment with seminal plasma or transforming growth factor beta-1. Theriogenology, 72(4), 566-571.

Fenech, M. (2011). Micronuclei and their association with sperm abnormalities, infertility, pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, and intra-uterine growth restriction in humans. Mutagenesis, 26(1), 63-67.

Mauri, M., Calmarza, P., & Ibarretxe, D. (2021). Dyslipemias and Pregnancy, an update. Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis (English Edition), 33(1), 41-52.

Goudot, G., Khider, L., Del Giudice, C., Mirault, T., Galloula, A., Bruneval, P., ... & Pernot, M. (2020). Non‐invasive recanalization of deep venous thrombosis by high-frequency ultrasound in a swine model with follow‐up. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 18(11), 2889-2898.

Mohr, B. J., Fakoya, F. A., Hau, J., Souilem, O., & Anestidou, L. (2017). The governance of animal care and use for scientific purposes in Africa and the Middle East. ILAR journal, 57(3), 333-346. DOI: 10.1093/liar/ilw035

Havenaar, R., Meijer, J. C., Morton, D. B., Ritskes-Hoitinga, J., & Zwart, P. (2001). Biology and husbandry of laboratory animals. Principles of laboratory animal Science, 2nd revised edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 19-76.

Keshavarz, M. A., Mogheiseh, A., Ahrari-Khafi, M. S., & Mahboobi, R. (2022). Ultrasonographic and macroscopic study of pregnancy in the golden hamster. Laboratory Animal Research, 38(1), 2.

Gillgrass, A. E., Tang, V. A., Towarnicki, K. M., Rosenthal, K. L., & Kaushic, C. (2005). Protection against genital herpes infection in mice immunized under different hormonal conditions correlates with the induction of vagina-associated lymphoid tissue. Journal of virology, 79(5), 3117-3126.

Hopper, R. M. (2021). Surgery to Restore Fertility. Bovine Reproduction, 655-663.

Chandolia, R. K. (2022). Applications of transabdominal ultrasonography in bovine reproduction: A review. Buffalo Bulletin, 41(2), 225-240.

Christiansen, D. (2021). Examination for pregnancy: Rectal Palpation. Bovine Reproduction, 471-478.

Kauffold, J., Peltoniemi, O., Wehrend, A., & Althouse, G. C. (2019). Principles and clinical uses of real-time ultrasonography in female swine reproduction. Animals, 9(11), 950.

Yang, J., Choi, S., & Kim, C. (2022). Practical review on photoacoustic computed tomography using curved ultrasound array transducer. Biomedical Engineering Letters, 1-17.

Petrescu, A. M., Ruican, D., Pătru, C. L., Zorilă, G. L., Tudorache, Ş., Comănescu, A. C., ... & Iliescu, D. G. (2020). Prenatal findings and pregnancy outcome in fetuses with right and double aortic arch. A 10-year experience at a tertiary center. Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, 61(4), 1173.

Liang, Y., Li, X., Hu, X., Wen, B., Wang, L., & Wang, C. (2020). A predictive model of offspring congenital heart disease based on maternal risk factors during pregnancy: a hospital-based case-control study in Nanchong City. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 17(18), 3091.

Zhu, A., Reeder, S. B., Johnson, K. M., Nguyen, S. M., Fain, S. B., Bird, I. M., ... & Hernando, D. (2020). Quantitative ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI in pregnancy: A feasibility study in the nonhuman primate. Magnetic resonance imaging, 65, 100-108.

How to Cite
Anupama Shamsunder Madhekar, Antara Bhowmik, & Roopashree. (2023). Evaluating the Efficacy of Ultrasonographic and Macroscopic Approaches for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Golden Hamsters. Revista Electronica De Veterinaria, 24(2), 140 - 151. Retrieved from https://veterinaria.org/index.php/REDVET/article/view/334